1. In 1947, very
few Indians had first-hand knowledge or experience of higher defence
organisation and administration. Pakistan inspired invasion of Kashmir
forced the pace of evolution of such an organisation. A number of
committees came into existence to advise the Government and the
Defence Minister on defence problems, the main one being the Defence
Committee of the Cabinet, which was supported by other committees
like the Defence Minister's Committee (DMC), the Chiefs of Staff
Committee (COSC), the Joint Planning Committee (JPC) and the Joint
Intelligence Committee (JIC).
2. In subsequent
years, following the ceasefire in Kashmir and India's adherence
to a policy of peace and non-alignment, most of the committees became
defunct, their functions being combined.
3. After the Chinese
aggression in 1962, the Defence Committee of the Cabinet was replaced
by the Emergency Committee of the Cabinet - the latter excluded
the attendance of Service Chiefs and the Defence Secretary unlike
the former. The DMC was revamped to include scrutiny of operational
developments and overseeing of defence preparedness. A number of
other committees came into being to expedite the defence build-up.
However, as the imminence of Chinese threat receded, most of these
committees again became defunct.
of Defence (Military Wing)
In order to ensure the smooth functioning of the Higher Defence
Organisation, a Military Wing was created in the Cabinet Secretariat
from 01 Nov 1947. However, after deliberations, the Military Wing
was later placed under the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The MOD (Mil Wing) was headed by Joint Secretary (Military) held
in rotation between the three Services by an officer of the rank
of Maj Gen/equivalent. The JS (Mil) reported direct to the Defence
|| The following functions/responsibilities
were assigned to the JS (Mil):-
||(a) Keep the
Cabinet Secretary posted through Defence Secretary with all
important developments and trends affecting defence and in particular
acquaint him with problems that are exercising the attention
of COSC and other sub-committees under the Defence Minister.
(b) Matters relating to coordination
with various Ministries/ State Governments, review, amendments,
publication and progress action on the Union War Book.
(c) Provide a properly constituted
military machinery in the Ministry of Defence which would be
in a position to interpret various details relating to defence
strategy in the event of outbreak of hostilities. (d) Process
and prepare briefs on all papers relating to defence requiring
(e) Provide a necessary and useful
link between the Defence Ministry and COSC in regard to higher
(f) Discussions, and writing
of papers on all aspects of joint operational planning and close
coordination with the JPC.
(g) Responsible for establishing
and functioning of the Joint Services Briefing Room (JSBR)/
Control Room in erstwhile War Room Complex in South Block.
(h) To coordinate the communications
electronics requirement of the three services to include standardisation
of qualitative requirements of telecommunication equipment,
allocation of common user equipment, prepare joint signal plans,
to render technical advice on military communications and electronics
when required by three Services/MOD and prepare position papers
on communication/electronic issues.
Organisation, coordination and conduct of Combined Commanders
Conference, under the directions of the COSC.
(j) Within the framework of the
spectrum policy and allocation of frequencies/ frequency spectrum
made by the National Regulatory Authority, and subject to such
order of the Government thereon, to coordinate and allocate
the frequency requirements of the Services in consultation,
where necessary, with National Regulating Authority.
the Secretariat for the following:-
||Defence Committee of Cabinet, since
replaced by (CCPA).
||Defence Ministers Committee.
||Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC)
||War Book Committee.
||War Book Executive Committee.
||Principal Personnel Officers Committee.
||Principal Supply Officers Committee.
||Defence Minister's Production and Supply
||Joint Planning Committee.
||Joint Training Committee.
||Joint Sea Air Warfare Committee.
||Joint Administrative Planning Committee.
||Inter Service Equipment Policy Committee.
||Principal Maintenance Officers Committee.
||Joint Communication Electronics Committee.
||Joint Electronics Warfare Board.
||Joint Electro Magnetic Compatibility
Management Advisory Board.
7. The organization of the JS (Mil)
was merged into the Integrated Staff on formation of Headquarters
Integrated Defence Staff.
Defence planning comprises not only operational
planning but also important planning for force levels, organising
and equipping of the armed forces; all these aspects are inter-related
and inter-dependent. Contingency operational planning apart, all
defence planning has to be on a steady long term basis; firstly,
so that not only is the current security threat catered for, but
also the foreseeable future threats; secondly to ensure that a proper
balance is maintained between economic development and defence plans.
9. In the post-independence years,
prior to 1964, defence planning was done on a annual basis. The
first 6-year Defence Plan was formulated in 1964; it was, however,
no more than a sum total of estimated yearly budgets for the next
five years. The 1969-74 Defence Plan took into account long-term
forecast of requirements of defence system as a whole, within the
framework of national resources. This was followed by the 1970-75
roll-on plan, which permitted a carry forward of fund allocations,
expenditure and targets from one year to the next, within the plan
period. The events of 1971, however, overtook the assumptions made
and thus immediate imperatives had to take precedence over long
term concepts, and priorities changed.
10. In 1973-74, a high level planning
group was set-up under the Minister of Planning to consider the
Defence Plan 1974-79, the fundamental approach being to review the
plan objectives against a high level assessment of threat and then
relating them to the National Development Plan, thus ensuring intimate
complementary relation between defence and development.
Planning Staff (DPS)
11. A high level inter-service
Defence Planning Staff (DPS) under the Ministry of Defence was created
in 1986 to assist the COSC. It had senior inter-service staff along
with senior representatives from the Ministry of Defence, Defence
(Finance), Ministry of External Affairs and a senior scientist from
The DPS was headed by Director General Defence Planning Staff (DG
DPS) held in rotation between the three services by an officer of
the rank of *Lt Gen/equivalent. The DPS was composed of the following
International Security Division.
(b) Weapons and Equipment Division.
(c) Military Plans Division.
(d) Policy Planning Division.
* DG DPS
had the status of Vice Chief/PSO and reported direct to the COSC.
The DPS was made responsible for preparation of coordinated perspective
defence plans based on projections received from the Perspective
Planning Directorates in the Service Headquarters, Department of
Defence Production and Supplies and the DRDO. The DPS was to undertake
periodic threat assessment to evolve a mix of force levels and weaponry
to integrate the requirements of the three services to meet the
threat. The DPS was also to undertake studies on the regions of
our military interests to ensure that defence plans were oriented
towards threats which the country would face during the next decade
and to ensure integrated capability to meet the threats optimally
within the resources available to the country.
14. The organization of the DG DPS was
merged into the Integrated Staff on formation of Headquarters Integrated
15. After the Kargil Conflict, the Government
constituted the Kargil Review Committee to carry out an in-depth review
and analysis of Security Management System in the country. The recommendations
of the Kargil Review Committee were considered by the Group
which made specific proposals for implementation based on the analysis
carried out by four task forces.
Download the Recommendations
from the Ministry of Defence web site
16. Based on the recommendations of
the Group of Ministers, the Integrated Defence Staff was set up vide
Government of India, Ministry of Defence letter number MoD/IC/1027/32/IDS/5843/2001
dated 23 November 2001.