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  Organizational Set-up



1.     In 1947, very few Indians had first-hand knowledge or experience of higher defence organisation and administration. Pakistan inspired invasion of Kashmir forced the pace of evolution of such an organisation. A number of committees came into existence to advise the Government and the Defence Minister on defence problems, the main one being the Defence Committee of the Cabinet, which was supported by other committees like the Defence Minister's Committee (DMC), the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), the Joint Planning Committee (JPC) and the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC).

2.     In subsequent years, following the ceasefire in Kashmir and India's adherence to a policy of peace and non-alignment, most of the committees became defunct, their functions being combined.

3.     After the Chinese aggression in 1962, the Defence Committee of the Cabinet was replaced by the Emergency Committee of the Cabinet - the latter excluded the attendance of Service Chiefs and the Defence Secretary unlike the former. The DMC was revamped to include scrutiny of operational developments and overseeing of defence preparedness. A number of other committees came into being to expedite the defence build-up. However, as the imminence of Chinese threat receded, most of these committees again became defunct.

  Ministry of Defence (Military Wing)  

4.     In order to ensure the smooth functioning of the Higher Defence Organisation, a Military Wing was created in the Cabinet Secretariat from 01 Nov 1947. However, after deliberations, the Military Wing was later placed under the Ministry of Defence (MoD).

5.     Composition. The MOD (Mil Wing) was headed by Joint Secretary (Military) held in rotation between the three Services by an officer of the rank of Maj Gen/equivalent. The JS (Mil) reported direct to the Defence Secretary.

6. Functions/Responsibilities.   The following functions/responsibilities were assigned to the JS (Mil):-

  (a)     Keep the Cabinet Secretary posted through Defence Secretary with all important developments and trends affecting defence and in particular acquaint him with problems that are exercising the attention of COSC and other sub-committees under the Defence Minister.

(b)     Matters relating to coordination with various Ministries/ State Governments, review, amendments, publication and progress action on the Union War Book.

(c)     Provide a properly constituted military machinery in the Ministry of Defence which would be in a position to interpret various details relating to defence strategy in the event of outbreak of hostilities. (d)     Process and prepare briefs on all papers relating to defence requiring CCPA approval.

(e)     Provide a necessary and useful link between the Defence Ministry and COSC in regard to higher defence problems.

(f)     Discussions, and writing of papers on all aspects of joint operational planning and close coordination with the JPC.

(g)     Responsible for establishing and functioning of the Joint Services Briefing Room (JSBR)/ Control Room in erstwhile War Room Complex in South Block.

(h)     To coordinate the communications electronics requirement of the three services to include standardisation of qualitative requirements of telecommunication equipment, allocation of common user equipment, prepare joint signal plans, to render technical advice on military communications and electronics when required by three Services/MOD and prepare position papers on communication/electronic issues.

(l)    Organisation, coordination and conduct of Combined Commanders Conference, under the directions of the COSC.

(j)     Within the framework of the spectrum policy and allocation of frequencies/ frequency spectrum made by the National Regulatory Authority, and subject to such order of the Government thereon, to coordinate and allocate the frequency requirements of the Services in consultation, where necessary, with National Regulating Authority.
  (k)     Provide the Secretariat for the following:-  

(i) Defence Committee of Cabinet, since replaced by (CCPA).  
(ii) Defence Ministers Committee.  
(iii) Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC)  
(iv) War Book Committee.  
(v) War Book Executive Committee.  
(vi) Principal Personnel Officers Committee.  
(vii) Principal Supply Officers Committee.  
(viii) Defence Minister's Production and Supply Committee.  
(ix) Joint Planning Committee.  
(x) Joint Training Committee.  
(xi) Joint Sea Air Warfare Committee.  
(xii) Joint Administrative Planning Committee.  
(xiii) Inter Service Equipment Policy Committee.  
(xiv) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee.  
(xv) Joint Communication Electronics Committee.  
(xvi) Joint Electronics Warfare Board.  
(xvii) Joint Electro Magnetic Compatibility Management Advisory Board.  

7.     The organization of the JS (Mil) was merged into the Integrated Staff on formation of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff.

  Planning for Defence  

8.     Defence planning comprises not only operational planning but also important planning for force levels, organising and equipping of the armed forces; all these aspects are inter-related and inter-dependent. Contingency operational planning apart, all defence planning has to be on a steady long term basis; firstly, so that not only is the current security threat catered for, but also the foreseeable future threats; secondly to ensure that a proper balance is maintained between economic development and defence plans.

9.     In the post-independence years, prior to 1964, defence planning was done on a annual basis. The first 6-year Defence Plan was formulated in 1964; it was, however, no more than a sum total of estimated yearly budgets for the next five years. The 1969-74 Defence Plan took into account long-term forecast of requirements of defence system as a whole, within the framework of national resources. This was followed by the 1970-75 roll-on plan, which permitted a carry forward of fund allocations, expenditure and targets from one year to the next, within the plan period. The events of 1971, however, overtook the assumptions made and thus immediate imperatives had to take precedence over long term concepts, and priorities changed.

10.     In 1973-74, a high level planning group was set-up under the Minister of Planning to consider the Defence Plan 1974-79, the fundamental approach being to review the plan objectives against a high level assessment of threat and then relating them to the National Development Plan, thus ensuring intimate complementary relation between defence and development.

  Defence Planning Staff (DPS)  

11.     A high level inter-service Defence Planning Staff (DPS) under the Ministry of Defence was created in 1986 to assist the COSC. It had senior inter-service staff along with senior representatives from the Ministry of Defence, Defence (Finance), Ministry of External Affairs and a senior scientist from the DRDO.

12.     Composition. The DPS was headed by Director General Defence Planning Staff (DG DPS) held in rotation between the three services by an officer of the rank of *Lt Gen/equivalent. The DPS was composed of the following divisions:-

  (a) International Security Division.
(b) Weapons and Equipment Division.
(c) Military Plans Division.
(d) Policy Planning Division.

* DG DPS had the status of Vice Chief/PSO and reported direct to the COSC.

    Functions. The DPS was made responsible for preparation of coordinated perspective defence plans based on projections received from the Perspective Planning Directorates in the Service Headquarters, Department of Defence Production and Supplies and the DRDO. The DPS was to undertake periodic threat assessment to evolve a mix of force levels and weaponry to integrate the requirements of the three services to meet the threat. The DPS was also to undertake studies on the regions of our military interests to ensure that defence plans were oriented towards threats which the country would face during the next decade and to ensure integrated capability to meet the threats optimally within the resources available to the country.

     The organization of the DG DPS was merged into the Integrated Staff on formation of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff.

  Post Kargil Developments  

     After the Kargil Conflict, the Government constituted the Kargil Review Committee to carry out an in-depth review and analysis of Security Management System in the country. The recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee were considered by the
Group of Ministers which made specific proposals for implementation based on the analysis carried out by four task forces.

>>> Download the Recommendations from the Ministry of Defence web site

16.     Based on the recommendations of the Group of Ministers, the Integrated Defence Staff was set up vide Government of India, Ministry of Defence letter number MoD/IC/1027/32/IDS/5843/2001 dated 23 November 2001.


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